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5个tips,英语说得更漂亮!

英语口语语法和书面语法不大一样,是学习者容易忽视和感到困惑的地方。一起来看看下面五个语法要点吧。

5个tips,英语说得更漂亮! [Photo/Pexels]


1.口语中的句子结构 It’s difficult, the exam.

非正式口语中的语法在某些方面与书面语法不同。句子通常不那么复杂,使用的连词种类更少,也更简单。

正式的书面语:
While the hotel was of quite a high standard, the food was disappointing.

非正式的口语:
The hotel was quite good, but the food was disappointing.

信息经常可以分开,以一条一条的形式呈现——句子并非总是遵循主语—谓语—宾语的语序。

They work very hard, the students.

 

2.省略句子开头 Must dash.

在非正式口语中,经常省略非重读的句子开头。

省略的主要是冠词、物主代词、人称代词、助动词和be动词、指示词和引导性的there is句型。

Car’s running badly. (=The car’s…)

Shoelace is undone. (=My shoelace…)

Forgotten the umbrella again. (=He’s forgotten…)

You talking to me? (=Are you talking…?)

She ready? (=Is she ready?)

Must dash. (=I must dash.)

Won’t work. (=It won’t work)

Be four pounds fifty. (=That’ll be…)

No reason to panic. (= There’s no reason…)

 

3.省略助动词后的词语 “Get up!” “I am!”

在非正式口语中,经常只用助动词,而不重复较长的表达。

—Get up!
—I am. (=I am getting up.)

He said he’d write to me, but he hasn’t. (=…he hasn’t written to me.)

—Talk louder.
—I would if I could, but I can’t.

如果没有可重复的助动词,则用 do。

She said she would phone, and she did.

 

4.附加疑问句 It's cold, isn't it?

在口语或非正式书面语中,附加疑问句(question tag)常用于句尾,用于确认某事是否属实,或征求对方同意。

You haven’t seen Joe, have you?

This tea isn’t very nice, is it?

否定的附加疑问句通常用缩写形式,如 isn’t it(通常不说 is it not?)
在附加疑问句中,am I not 的缩写形式是 aren’t I?

Nice day, isn’t it?

I’m late, aren’t I?

 

5.答语疑问句

答语疑问句(reply question)的构成为助动词+代词(与附加疑问句类似),表达关注、兴趣或惊奇。

—We had a lovely holiday.
—Did you?
—Yes, we went…

—John likes that girl next door.
—Oh, does he?

—It was a terrible party.
—Was it?
—Yes,…

用否定的答语疑问句来回答肯定句,表示加强赞同的语气。

—It was a lovely concert.
—Yes, wasn’t it! I did enjoy it.

—She’s lost a lot of weight.
—Yes, hasn’t she?


以上内容整理自《牛津英语语法教程》
来源:商务印书馆英语编辑室

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