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关于涉港国家安全立法 你需要了解的6个事实

十三届全国人大三次会议5月28日表决通过了《全国人民代表大会关于建立健全香港特别行政区维护国家安全的法律制度和执行机制的决定》。香港特区政府、各界团体和人士纷纷表示欢迎和支持,将全力配合尽快完成相关立法工作,维护国家安全、守护香港。On May 28, the 13th National People’s Congress (NPC) adopted at its Third Session the NPC Decision on Establishing and Improving the Legal System and Enforcement Mechanisms for Safeguarding National Security in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). The HKSAR government and various social groups and individuals in Hong Kong have welcomed and supported the decision, and pledged to facilitate the early completion of the legislative process with maximum efforts to safeguard national security and protect Hong Kong.

关于涉港国家安全立法 你需要了解的6个事实 香港金紫荆广场的国旗和特区区旗(图片来源:新华社)

 

很多国家和国际人士认为,中国涉港国家安全立法符合法律法理、情势需要、人民期待、国际惯例,任何希望香港明天更好的人都应支持中国全国人大的决定。但极个别外国政客妄加评论、横加指责,粗暴干涉香港事务和中国内政。我们梳理了6个有代表性的谬论,以下是你需要知道的事实真相。It is a view widely shared in the global community that China’s national security legislation for Hong Kong is legally sound and consistent with international common practices. It is driven by the situation on the ground and meets the aspiration of the people. Anyone who wishes Hong Kong a better future would support the NPC’s decision. However, a handful of foreign politicians are going all out to make unwarranted accusations and blatantly interfere in Hong Kong-related affairs, which are purely China’s internal affairs. The following are the six typical falsehoods about the legislation and the facts that you need to know.

 

谬论1:中国推进涉港国家安全立法没有法理依据,是把法律强加于香港。Falsehood #1: It is not legitimate for China to enact national security legislation for Hong Kong or, in other words, to impose it on Hong Kong.

事实:维护国家安全历来是各国中央事权。中国中央政府对维护国家安全负有最大和最终的责任。世界上任何国家,无论实行单一制还是联邦制,国家安全立法都属于国家立法权力。全国人大是中国最高权力机关。The truth is: The Central Government of China holds the primary and ultimate responsibility for national security, as is the case in any other country. In all countries, unitary and federal alike, the power to legislate on national security rests solely with the central government. And the NPC is the highest organ of state power in China.

◆澳大利亚有2部国安法,英国有3部,加拿大有5部,而仅美国一家就有多达20部。◆Australia has two national security laws, the United Kingdom has three, Canada has five, and the United States alone has more than 20 such laws.

◆中国宪法第31条规定,“国家在必要时得设立特别行政区,在特别行政区内实行的制度按具体情况由全国人民代表大会以法律规定”。全国人大作为国家最高权力机关,有权力也有责任依据宪法和基本法,根据香港特区的实际情况和需要履行维护国家安全的宪制责任,包括制定与香港特区有关的维护国家安全法律,构建有关法律制度和执行机制。全国人大作出有关决定具有坚实法律基础和最高法律效力。◆Article 31 of the Chinese Constitution stipulates that, “The state may establish special administrative regions when necessary. The systems to be instituted in special administrative regions shall be prescribed by law enacted by the National People’s Congress in the light of the specific conditions.” As the highest organ of state power, the NPC has both the power and obligation to fulfill its constitutional duty of safeguarding national security in accordance with the Constitution and the Basic Law based on the reality and needs of the HKSAR. The duty includes enacting national security legislation for the HKSAR and establishing relevant legal system and enforcement mechanisms. The recent decision of the NPC has solid legal grounds and the highest legal effect.

◆国家安全立法属于国家立法权。中央政府通过基本法第23条授予香港特别行政区维护国家安全的部分立法权力,这是在“一国两制”下作出的极特殊安排,但这不改变国家安全立法是中央事权的属性,也不影响中央根据实际情况和需要继续建构维护国家安全的法律制度和执行机制。◆Legislation on national security falls within a state’s legislative power. Through Article 23 of the Basic Law, the Central Government grants the HKSAR certain legislative power on safeguarding national security, which is a very special arrangement under “one country, two systems”. However, it does not change the fact that national security legislation is essentially within the purview of the Central Government, nor does it prevent the Central Government from further developing a legal system and enforcement mechanisms for safeguarding national security in light of the actual situation and needs.

 

 

谬论2:中国此时推进涉港国安立法毫无必要。Falsehood #2: It is not necessary for China to take the action at the moment.

事实:从国家层面建立健全香港特区维护国家安全的法律制度和执行机制,是形势所迫,也是确保“一国两制”行稳致远的治本之策,势在必行,刻不容缓。The truth is: The current situation makes it imperative to establish and improve, at the state level, the legal system and enforcement mechanisms for safeguarding national security in the HKSAR. The decision is fundamental to the enduring success of “one country, two systems” and is of the greatest urgency.

◆基本法第23条授权香港特别行政区就维护国家安全自行立法,但回归近23年来,由于反中乱港势力和外部敌对势力的极力阻挠、干扰,相关立法仍未完成,香港特别行政区完成23条立法实际上已经很困难。◆Article 23 of the Basic Law stipulates that the HKSAR shall enact laws on its own to safeguard national security. Nearly 23 years after Hong Kong’s return to China, however, the relevant legislative process is still not materialized due to the sabotage and obstruction by anti-China, destabilizing elements in Hong Kong as well as hostile forces from the outside. Given this situation, it has become quite difficult, if not impossible, for the HKSAR to enact the relevant laws on its own.

◆一段时间以来,香港特别行政区危害国家安全的各种活动愈演愈烈,保持香港长期繁荣稳定、维护国家安全面临着不容忽视的风险。特别是2019年香港发生“修例风波”以来,“港独”和激进分离势力活动日益猖獗,暴力恐怖活动不断升级,香港分裂分子甚至公开打出请求外国对华制裁甚至邀请美军登陆香港的旗号,同时外部干预势力和“台独”势力赤裸裸地加大干预香港事务,严重挑战“一国两制”原则底线,严重损害法治,严重危害国家主权、安全、发展利益,必须采取有力措施依法予以防范、制止和惩治。◆Over the past weeks and months, activities that endanger national security have intensified in the HKSAR, posing notable risks to the long-term prosperity and stability of the Hong Kong and to the security of the country. In particular, since the turbulence over the amendment bill in 2019, the “Hong Kong independence” and radical separatist forces have become further emboldened and escalated their violent terrorist activities. Some separatists even made a public appeal for foreign sanctions against China and invited the US military to Hong Kong. External forces and “Taiwan independence” forces have blatantly ramped up intervention in Hong Kong affairs, which seriously challenges the “one country, two systems” principle, gravely undermines Hong Kong’s law and order, and poses real threats to the country’s sovereignty, security and development interests. Forceful measures are therefore required to prevent, forestall and punish these acts.

 

 

谬论3:涉港国安立法将破坏“一国两制”。Falsehood #3: The legislation will undermine “one country, two systems”.

事实:恰恰相反,有关立法将保障“一国两制”行稳致远。全国人大有关决定,开宗明义阐明国家坚定不移并全面准确贯彻“一国两制”、“港人治港”、高度自治的方针。The truth is: On the contrary, the legislation will ensure the successful implementation of “one country, two systems”. Article 1 of the NPC’s decision states clearly that the country will unswervingly, fully and faithfully implement the principles of “one country, two systems”, “the people of Hong Kong administering Hong Kong” and a high degree of autonomy.

◆“一国”是实行“两制”的前提和基础,“两制”从属和派生于“一国”并统一于“一国”之内。“一国”是根、是本。如果“一国”原则出现动摇,“两制”就无从谈起。香港出现乱象,一个重要原因是反中乱港和外部势力无视“一国”之本,挑战“一国两制”的原则底线。◆“One country” is the precondition and basis of “two systems”, while “two systems” is subordinate to and derived from “one country”. “One country” is the foundation. Should the principle of “one country” be undermined, “two systems” would be impossible to practice. One important reason for the turbulence in Hong Kong is that the anti-China, destabilizing elements in Hong Kong and external forces have shown no regard for “one country” as the foundation and challenged the bottom line of the “one country, two systems” principle.

◆中国涉港国家安全立法后,“一国两制”方针不会变,香港实行的资本主义制度不会变,高度自治不会变,特区法律制度不会变,特区行政管理权、立法权、独立的司法权和终审权也不会受到影响。◆The legislation for Hong Kong will not change the “one country, two systems” principle. It will not change the capitalist system or the high degree of autonomy practiced in Hong Kong. It will not change the legal system in the HKSAR. Nor will it affect the HKSAR’s executive, legislative and independent judicial power, including that of final adjudication.

 

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