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联合国&世卫组织:大流行病是人类破坏自然的结果 Photo by Sharad Bhat on Unsplash


Pandemics such as coronavirus are the result of humanity’s destruction of nature, according to leaders at the UN, WHO and WWF International, and the world has been ignoring this stark reality for decades.联合国、世界卫生组织和世界自然基金会的领导人指出,新冠肺炎等大流行病是人类破坏自然的结果,而几十年来全世界一直在无视这个赤裸裸的现实。

The illegal and unsustainable wildlife trade as well as the devastation of forests and other wild places were still the driving forces behind the increasing number of diseases leaping from wildlife to humans, the leaders told the Guardian.他们告诉《卫报》说,非法的不可持续的野生动物贸易以及对森林和其他野生地带的破坏依然是野生动物传播给人类的疾病日益增多的背后驱动力。

They are calling for a green and healthy recovery from the Covid-19 pandemic, in particular by reforming destructive farming and unsustainable diets.他们呼吁用绿色健康的方式从新冠疫情中恢复,尤其是改革破坏性的农业开发和不可持续的饮食方式。

A WWF report published on Wednesday, warns: “The risk of a new [wildlife-to-human] disease emerging in the future is higher than ever, with the potential to wreak havoc on health, economies and global security.”本周三(6月17日)发布的一份世界自然基金会报告警告称:“未来出现(野生动物传播给人类的)新型疾病的风险比以往都更高,可能会对健康、经济和全球安全造成严重破坏。”

High-level figures have issued a series of warnings since March, with the world’s leading biodiversity experts saying even more deadly disease outbreaks are likely in future unless the rampant destruction of the natural world is rapidly halted.自从三月以来,高层人士已经发出一系列警告,世界顶级生物多样性专家表示,未来可能暴发更致命的疫情,除非对自然界的大肆破坏迅速停止。

Earlier in June, the UN environment chief and a leading economist said Covid-19 was an “SOS signal for the human enterprise” and that current economic thinking did not recognise that human wealth depends on nature’s health.六月上旬,联合国环境署署长、首席经济学家指出,新冠肺炎是“对人类事业发出的求救信号”,当下的经济思维没有意识到人类的财富依赖于自然的健康。


联合国&世卫组织:大流行病是人类破坏自然的结果 Photo by Glen Carrie on Unsplash


“We have seen many diseases emerge over the years, such as Zika, Aids, Sars and Ebola and they all originated from animal populations under conditions of severe environmental pressures,” said Elizabeth Maruma Mrema, head of the UN convention on biological diversity, Maria Neira, the World Health Organization director for environment and health, and Marco Lambertini, head of WWF International, in the Guardian article.联合国《生物多样性公约》代理执行秘书伊丽莎白·玛如玛·莫勒玛、世界卫生组织环境与卫生部主任玛丽亚·奈拉、世界自然基金会总干事马可·兰博蒂尼告诉《卫报》说:“这些年我们已经见过很多疾病的出现,比如艾滋病、非典,还有寨卡病毒和埃博拉病毒引发的疾病,这些病毒都是在严重的环境压力下来自动物群体。”

With coronavirus, “these outbreaks are manifestations of our dangerously unbalanced relationship with nature”, they said. “They all illustrate that our own destructive behaviour towards nature is endangering our own health – a stark reality we’ve been collectively ignoring for decades.他们指出,新冠病毒的“暴发展现出我们与自然严重失衡的关系”。“这些疾病都表明了我们自己对自然的破坏性行为正在危及我们的自身健康——几十年来我们一直在集体无视这个赤裸裸的事实。”

“Worryingly, while Covid-19 has given us yet another reason to protect and preserve nature, we have seen the reverse take place. From the Greater Mekong, to the Amazon and Madagascar, alarming reports have emerged of increased poaching, illegal logging and forest fires, while many countries are engaging in hasty environmental rollbacks and cuts in funding for conservation. This all comes at a time when we need it most.“令人担忧的是,尽管新冠病毒又给了我们一个保护自然的理由,但我们却看到人们在背道而驰。从大湄公河到亚马孙雨林和马达加斯加,越来越多的偷猎、非法砍伐和森林火灾见诸报端,而许多国家正仓促地采取倒退的环境政策,削减保护自然的资金。这些都发生在我们最需要保护自然的时候。”

rollback[ˈroʊlbæk]: n. 卷回;反转;(物价、利率等的)回降


“We must embrace a just, healthy and green recovery and kickstart a wider transformation towards a model that values nature as the foundation for a healthy society. Not doing so, and instead attempting to save money by neglecting environmental protection, health systems, and social safety nets, has already proven to be a false economy. The bill will be paid many times over.”“我们必须接受一个公正、健康和绿色的恢复过程,启动更大范围的改革行动,建立一个将自然奉为健康社会的基础的模式。不这么做,而是试图为了省钱而忽视自然保护、卫生系统和社会安全网,已经被证明是错误的经济方式。这笔账将来要数倍偿还。”

The WWF report concludes the key drivers for diseases that move from wild animals to humans are the destruction of nature, the intensification of agriculture and livestock production, as well as the trading and consumption of high-risk wildlife.世界自然基金会的报告总结道,从野生动物传给人类的疾病的关键驱动因素就是对自然的破坏、农业和畜牧业的集约化生产,以及高风险野生动物的贸易和消费。

The report urges all governments to introduce and enforce laws to eliminate the destruction of nature from supply chains of goods and on the public to make their diets more sustainable.该报告敦促所有政府引进和实施法规来消除对自然的破坏,从商品供应链到更可持续化的大众饮食方式。


联合国&世卫组织:大流行病是人类破坏自然的结果 Photo by Mehrshad Rajabi on Unsplash


Beef, palm oil and soy are among the commodities frequently linked to deforestation and scientists have said avoiding meat and dairy products is the single biggest way for people to reduce their environmental impact on the planet.牛肉、棕榈油和大豆是与森林砍伐高度相关的商品。科学家指出,少吃肉和奶制品是人们减少对地球的环境影响的最主要方法。

The WWF report said 60-70% of the new diseases that have emerged in humans since 1990 came from wildlife. Over the same period, 178m hectares of forest have been cleared, equivalent to more than seven times the area of the UK.世界自然基金会的报告称,自从1990年以来,人类出现的新型疾病有60%到70%都来自野生动物。在同一时期内,1.78亿公顷森林被砍伐,相当于英国国土面积的7倍多。