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有人认为,刚锻炼完不能马上冲冷水澡,会增加心脏负担。但是外国专家却指出,冲冷水澡对身体非常有益,无论是锻炼前还是锻炼后。

 

夏天冲凉居然有这么多好处!听专家为你一一道来 Photo by Chandler Cruttenden on Unsplash

 

Perhaps you already heard about the benefits of ice baths. Actually they’re one of the most effective ways to reduce delayed onset muscle soreness, perceived fatigue, muscle damage, and inflammation after physical exercise, according to a 2018 meta-analysis of 99 studies looked at the effectiveness of recovery methods.

也许你已经听说过冰块浴的益处。2018年的一篇对99项恢复方法有效性研究的荟萃分析显示,事实上冰块浴是缓解体育锻炼后延迟发作的肌肉酸痛、疲劳感、肌肉损伤和炎症的最有效的方法之一。

But let’s be real: It’s a total chore to fill your tub up with bags of ice. What’s the next best thing? An ice cold shower seems obvious, but are there any benefits of cold showers?

不过我们还是现实点吧:将浴缸装满冰袋可是个苦力活。那么有什么仅次于冰块浴的方法吗?显然是冷水澡,但是冷水澡有什么好处吗?

While it’s not quite the same as immersing yourself in icy water (and you won’t get the same intended effect), even a few minutes under that cold water can affect how you perform and recover.

尽管冷水澡和将全身浸在冰水中不完全一样(你也不会收到同样的效果),但即使在冷水下冲几分钟也能影响你的表现和恢复情况。

First thing’s first: A cold shower pre-workout could do wonders for you, especially when you’re, for example, running in the heat. “You feel better, but your body temperature would also be a little bit lower to start the run,” which affects how high it might rise during the run, says Doug Casa, Ph.D., Chief Executive Officer of The Korey Stringer Institute. “There’s no question that your performance could be better, and that you’ll be safer.”

首先,在锻炼前冲个冷水澡能产生让你意想不到的效果,尤其是在你打算在热天跑步时。科利・斯金格研究所的首席执行官道格·卡萨博士说:“你会感觉更好,而你开始跑步时体温也会低一点。”他指出,起跑时的体温较低,跑步过程中体温也不会升得过高。“毫无疑问你的表现会更佳,也更安全。”

But you’re more likely to crave that cold water post-workout, when it can provide relief for soreness and inflammation and give almost every system in your body a boost, a recent review of the science in The North American Journal of Medical Sciences found. “Jumping in a cold shower immediately after exercise is a great idea, because the faster you get your body temperature down after activity, the better you’re going to recover,” Casa says.

但是你可能会更渴望在锻炼结束后冲个冷水澡,近日发表在《北美医学杂志》的一篇科学评论发现,锻炼后洗冷水澡能缓解肌肉酸痛和炎症,让身体的各个系统都为之一振。卡萨说:“锻炼后立刻冲个冷水澡是个好主意,因为你在活动后越快把体温降下来,你就能恢复得越好。”

“When you use water to cool your skin, your body can send blood back to important areas like your stomach and your intestines, so you can handle hydration and nutrients better. Then your fatigue will be less later on.” explains Casa.

卡萨解释道:“当你用水来给皮肤降温时,你的身体会把血流送到胃肠等重要区域,从而能让你更好地补充水分和营养。然后你的疲劳感就会减少。”

That exposure to cold water also causes vasoconstriction, which is when your blood vessels become more narrow and, along with the heart, need to work harder to continue moving blood flow, says Aaron Drogoszewski, a NASM-certified personal trainer. “This increased demand strengthens the heart and blood vessels, translating to improved circulation longer term,” he explains. “Improved circulation benefits overall health, performance, and recovery by helping to deliver key nutrients and energy to muscles and organs while simultaneously removing exercise-related metabolic waste products such as lactic acid more efficiently.”

海军航空医学院认证的私人教练阿伦·德若果斯邱斯基说,接触冷水还会造成血管收缩,也就是血管变细,血管和心脏都要更努力地继续让血液流动。他解释道:“这种更高的需求会增强心脏和血管,长期来看会改善血流。血流改善有助于将重要营养物质和能量输送到肌肉和器官,同时还能更有效地将乳酸等与锻炼相关的新陈代谢废物排掉,对整体健康、运动表现和恢复情况都有益。”

vasoconstriction[ˌveɪzoʊkənˈstrɪkʃn]: n. 血管收缩

 

Taking a cold shower for up to five minutes, two to three times per week, has also been shown to help relieve symptoms of depression, according to research published in the journal Medical Hypotheses. “That cold water exposure helps to decrease cortisol levels and increase the levels of the feel-good neurotransmitter serotonin,” says Drogoszewski. Even better: The adrenaline rush you get from immersing yourself in cold water helps to increase energy, focus, and performance outcomes, he adds.

发表在《医学假说》上的研究指出,每周洗两到三次冷水澡,每次洗五分钟以上,有助于缓解抑郁症状。德若果斯邱斯基说:“接触冷水有助于降低皮质醇水平,提高让人感觉良好的神经递质血清素的水平。”他补充道,更妙的是,冲冷水澡带来的肾上腺素飙升有助于提升你的精力、注意力和表现。

Everyone’s definition of what’s cold is different. “Generally, the colder the water the better, and the longer you can stand it the better,” he says.

每个人对寒冷的定义是不同的。德若果斯邱斯基说:“通常来说,水温越低越好,冲得越久越好。”

The best practice is to start slow and build up to longer exposures, says Drogoszewski. “The goal is to engage in the practice long-term, so if it’s absolutely miserable, the likelihood of sticking with it is pretty slim. I now do five to 10 minutes straight every morning, but I started with 30 seconds of cold at the end of my shower then built up from there.”

德若果斯邱斯基说,最好的做法是一开始慢慢来,逐渐增加时间。“我们的目标是长期洗冷水澡,所以如果一开始就难以忍受,坚持下去的几率也很渺茫。我现在每天早上都冲5到10分钟冷水澡,但我最开始时是在洗完澡后冲30秒钟冷水,然后一点点增加。”

What you don’t want to do is turn the faucet so far to the cold side that you end up shivering—and using more energy—under the spray. “I would not want to induce a shivering response in someone after they just exercised in the heat,” says Casa. “You have enough stress your body’s dealing with already.” And in the dog days of summer? A nice, cold shower might be the actual cooldown your workout needs.

你也不要将水温调得太低,在淋浴头下冻得直哆嗦,这样会用掉更多能量。卡萨说:“我不建议人们在热天里刚锻炼完就用太冷的水洗澡。你的身体要应对的压力已经够多的了。”那么在三伏天呢?好好洗个冷水澡来降温也许正是你锻炼完所需要的。

 

英文来源:雅虎新闻

翻译&编辑:丹妮

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