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奥斯卡奖又出新规了!这一次,美国电影艺术与科学学院直击痛点,针对一直以来缺乏多样性的候选影片设置了“包容性标准”门槛。“白”了多年的奥斯卡奖可能真的要变了。

 

奥斯卡“最佳影片奖”出新规:必须包含女性或少数群体 An Oscar statue stands covered with plastic during preparations leading up to the 87th Academy Awards in Hollywood, California February 21, 2015. REUTERS/Lucas Jackson

 

The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences will now require films submitted to the Best Picture category to adhere to inclusion and diversity standards, in an ongoing effort to rectify the current glaring diversity issues present in the Academy. These changes are a part of the Academy Aperture 2025 initiative, but will not affect this year’s Oscars.

为了整顿奥斯卡奖当前明显存在的多样性问题,美国电影艺术与科学学院(以下简称影艺学院)如今将要求角逐最佳影片奖的电影坚持包容性和多样性标准。这些改变是影艺学院片门2025计划的一部分,但不会影响今年的奥斯卡奖评选。

aperture [ˈæpərtʃʊr]: n.(照相机,望远镜等的)光圈,孔径。Academy Aperture是由美国影艺学院推行的一种电影片门规格。

 

For a film to be considered for Best Picture for the 94th and 95th Oscars, it must submit an Academy Inclusion Standards form, which will note standards and representation in the film’s on-screen representation, storyline, crew, creative leadership, and industry opportunities. While films must submit these forms in 2022 and 2023, meeting the diversity standards will not be required for eligibility until the 2024 Oscars.

如果一部电影要获得第94届和95届奥斯卡最佳影片奖评选资格,就必须提交一张学院包容性标准表格,写明该片呈现在屏幕上的画面、故事情节、剧组人员、创意领导和行业机会所体现的包容性标准。虽然参选电影在2022年和2023年都必须提交这一表格,但是到2024年才会要求参选奥斯卡奖的电影符合多样性标准。

"The aperture must widen to reflect our diverse global population in both the creation of motion pictures and in the audiences who connect with them. The Academy is committed to playing a vital role in helping make this a reality,” Academy President David Rubin and Academy CEO Dawn Hudson said in a statement about the new standards. “We believe these inclusion standards will be a catalyst for long-lasting, essential change in our industry.”

影艺学院主席大卫·鲁宾和学院首席执行官道恩·哈德森在关于新标准的一份声明中说:“我们必须放宽片门规格来反映我们多样化的全球人口,无论是电影创作,还是与电影产生联系的观众。影艺学院致力于在实现电影多样性的过程中扮演重要角色。我们相信这些包容性标准将会成为一个催化剂,引发电影行业长久的本质改变。”

To win Best Picture in 2024, a film must meet two out of four overarching standards for equality. Under on-screen representation, at least one actor or supporting actor must be from an underrepresented racial group, or at least 30% of minor roles must be from two underrepresented groups, or the main storyline must be centered on an underrepresented group. For the creative leadership, either two creative leadership positions and department heads must be from underrepresented groups or six other technical production assistants must be diverse members.

如果想在2024年赢得奥斯卡最佳影片奖,一部电影必须满足四条首要平等标准中的两条。电影画面中至少有一名主角或配角必须来自代表性不足的种族,或至少30%的小角色必须来自两个代表性不足的群体,或主要故事情节必须围绕一个代表性不足的群体展开。关于创意领导,要么两个创意领导和部门领导必须来自代表性不足的群体,要么其余的6个技术制作助理来自代表性不足的群体。

Film distribution companies must also offer paid apprenticeship and internship roles and skill development for crew, while audience development must include diverse representation throughout marketing, distribution, and publicity.

电影发行公司还必须提供带薪学徒和实习生职位以及为剧组人员提供培训机会,而在观众拓展方面必须包括营销、发行和宣传等渠道的多样化呈现形式。

The new diversity standards will not affect the 2021 Oscars, although the novel coronavirus outbreak has pushed the event back until April 2021. The changes come after several contentious years for diversity at the Academy Awards. While South Korean fan-favorite Parasite made history in 2020 by becoming the first non-English film to take home the golden statue for Best Picture, the Academy faced backlash for their lack of diverse nominees in the lead and supporting actors categories.

新的多样性标准不会影响2021年奥斯卡奖,尽管由于暴发新冠疫情明年的奥斯卡颁奖礼已经推迟到了2021年4月。在新规出台前,奥斯卡奖几年来一直因为多样性问题而饱受争议。虽然深受影迷喜爱的韩国电影《寄生虫》在2020年作为首部斩获奥斯卡最佳影片奖的非英语电影载入史册,但是影艺学院仍因最佳主角和配角奖项候选者缺乏多样性而受到强烈抵制。

However, diverse voters can only work with the films that are nominated. After several years of #OscarsSoWhite highlighting overlooked films and actors, the Academy launched the Academy Aperture 2025 initiative, which aims to create a more inclusive film community by 2025. In June, the Academy invited 819 new members to their voting body, surpassing their internal goal to double their female and diverse members by 2020. As such, the new rules combat the lack of diverse nominees directly, making swift and decisive changes to the very structure that has kept diverse films down so long.

然而,多样化的评委只能从提名影片中挑选获奖者。在#奥斯卡太白这个为被忽略的影片和演员发声的标签持续数年后,影艺学院发起了影艺学院片门2025计划,目标是在2025年前打造一个更为包容的电影界。六月份,影艺学院邀请819名新成员加入评委团,超额完成了他们在2020年前将女性和少数群体成员数量加倍的内部计划。同样,新规定直击缺少多元化候选影片的现状,快速而果决地改变了长期以来让候选电影缺乏多样性的结构。

While the 2021 nominees have yet to be announced, it is the hope of many that these prolific and systematic rule changes from the Academy will mark a more diverse Oscars than ever before.

虽然2021年的奥斯卡奖提名名单还未公布,但是许多人希望影艺学院的这些繁多而系统的规则变动会带来一个前所未有的多元化的奥斯卡奖。

 

英文来源:福布斯网站

翻译&编辑:丹妮

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