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澳大利亚最新研究显示,钞票、玻璃和其他常见表面上的新冠病毒可能在数周内一直具有传染性。这项研究强调了纸币、触屏设备、门把手和扶手传播病毒的风险。

研究:新冠病毒在纸币和手机屏幕上可存活28天

A woman wearing a protective face mask walks past a closed restaurant in Paris, before the announcement of new COVID restrictions by Paris authorities as the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak continues in France, Oct 5, 2020. [Photo/Agencies]

The virus that causes COVID-19 can last up to 28 days on surfaces such as mobile phone and ATM screens – much longer than previously thought – but lasts for much less time on softer surfaces, new CSIRO research shows.

澳大利亚联邦科学与工业研究组织的一项新研究显示,新冠病毒在手机和自动取款机屏幕等表面上可以存活28天,远比之前认为的要长,但在较软的表面上存活的时间要短得多。

Previous research from US health authorities showed the virus could be detected in aerosols for up to three hours and on plastic and stainless steel surfaces for up to three days.

此前美国卫生当局的研究表明,新冠病毒在气溶胶中可以存活3小时,在塑料和不锈钢表面可以存活3天。

Australian researchers tested the virus on polymer banknotes, de-monetised paper banknotes and common surfaces including brushed stainless steel, glass, vinyl and cotton cloth.

澳大利亚研究人员在塑料钞票、废弃纸币和拉丝不锈钢、玻璃、乙烯基和棉布等常见表面上测试了新冠病毒。

On glass, stainless steel and paper banknotes, the virus lasted for up to 28 days at 20 degrees.

在玻璃、不锈钢和纸币上,病毒在20摄氏度的温度下可以存活28天。

As the temperature increased to 30 and 40 degrees, the virus lasted for less than a week on those surfaces. The study found the virus remained on most surfaces for about six to seven days before starting to lose its potency.

当温度上升到30摄氏度和40摄氏度时,病毒在这些表面存活了不到一周。研究发现,病毒在大部分表面停留大约6到7天后就开始失去活性。

On more porous materials such as cotton, which can absorb the virus, no infectious virus was recovered after two weeks.

棉花等更多孔的材料可以吸附病毒。在这些材料上,两周后就检测不到传染性病毒。

porous [ˈpɔːrəs]:adj.多孔渗水的;能渗透的;有气孔的

研究:新冠病毒在纸币和手机屏幕上可存活28天

People wait at a COVID-19 testing location in the Borough Park neighborhood in the Brooklyn borough of New York, the United States, Oct 4, 2020. [Photo/Agencies]

Similar experiments for influenza A have found that it survived on surfaces for 17 days.

针对甲型流感的类似试验发现,甲流病毒可以在物体表面存活17天。

CSIRO chief executive Dr Larry Marshall said: "Establishing how long the virus really remains viable on surfaces enables us to more accurately predict and mitigate its spread, and do a better job of protecting our people."

澳大利亚联邦科学与工业研究组织首席执行官拉里·马歇尔博士说:“确定病毒在物体表面存活的时间,使我们能够更准确地预测和减缓其传播,并更好地保护民众。”

The study notes the virus is primarily transmitted through aerosols and droplets caused by infected people sneezing or coughing near another person. The role of contaminated surfaces in the virus' spread is yet to be fully determined, according to the study, but has "been suggested as a potential mode of transmission also reflected by the strong focus on hand-washing by [the World Health Organisation] and national control schemes".

该研究指出,新冠病毒主要通过在他人附近打喷嚏或咳嗽的感染者产生的气溶胶和飞沫传播。根据这项研究,受污染的表面在病毒传播中的作用尚未完全确定,但“被认为是一种潜在的传播方式,因此世卫组织和国家防控措施也高度重视勤洗手的作用”。

 

新冠病毒可以在物体表面存活多久?

"The persistence on glass is an important finding, given that touch-screen devices such as mobile phones, bank ATMs, supermarket self-serve checkouts and airport check-in kiosks are high-touch surfaces which may not be regularly cleaned and therefore pose a transmission risk of SARS-CoV-2," the study states.

研究指出:“病毒在玻璃上可以存活很久是一个重要的发现,考虑到触屏设备,如手机、银行自动取款机、超市自助收银台和机场自助值机设备的触摸频率很高,可能无法定时清洁,因此会造成传播新冠病毒的风险。”

研究:新冠病毒在纸币和手机屏幕上可存活28天

 

"It has been demonstrated that mobile phones can harbour pathogens responsible for nosocomial transmission and, unlike hands, are not regularly cleaned."

“人们已经证实,手机可以藏匿病原体,导致院内传播,而且不像手可以经常清洁。”

nosocomial [,nɒsə(ʊ)'kəʊmɪəl]:adj.医院的

 

The CSIRO said the findings may help to explain the persistent spread of the coronavirus in cool environments such as abattoirs.

该组织表示,这一发现可能有助于解释新冠病毒在屠宰场等低温环境中持续传播的原因。

Trevor Drew, director of the Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness, said the virus' viability on surfaces outside their host relied on a number of factors.

澳大利亚疾病防控中心主任特雷弗·德鲁说,病毒在宿主体外表面的存活取决于许多因素。

"How long they can survive and remain infectious depends on the type of virus, quantity, the surface, environmental conditions and how it's deposited – for example, touch versus droplets emitted by coughing," Professor Drew said.

德鲁教授说:“它们能存活多久并保持传染性取决于病毒的类型、数量、表面、环境条件以及病毒的沉积方式,例如,接触还是咳嗽排出的飞沫。”

"Proteins and fats in body fluids can also significantly increase virus survival times."

“体液中的蛋白质和脂肪也能显著增加病毒的存活时间。

The research, conducted at the Centre for Disease Preparedness in Geelong, Victoria, involved drying virus in an artificial mucus on different surfaces, at concentrations similar to those reported in samples from infected patients, and then re-isolating the virus over a month.

这项研究是在维多利亚州吉隆市的澳大利亚疾病防控中心进行的,研究涉及在不同表面上的人造黏液中的干燥病毒,使其浓度与感染者样本中报告的浓度相似,然后在一个月的时间里重新分离病毒。

mucus [ˈmjuːkəs]:n.黏液

 

The study was also carried out in the dark, to remove the effect of UV light, as research has demonstrated direct sunlight can rapidly inactivate the virus.

这项研究也在黑暗中进行,以消除紫外线的影响,因为研究已经证明直接的光线照射可以迅速灭活病毒。

 

英文来源:悉尼先驱晨报

翻译&编辑:yaning

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