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英国卫生和社会保健部表示,英国已批准美国辉瑞和德国生物新技术公司联合研制的新冠疫苗紧急使用授权,下周起英国民众就可以接种疫苗。这是有史以来研发最快的疫苗,从概念到批准上市只花了10个月,完成了通常需要十年才能走完的研发步骤。

 

英国成为首个批准新冠疫苗的西方国家 下周开始接种 A small shopping basket filled with vials labeled "COVID-19 - Coronavirus Vaccine" is placed on a UK flag in this illustration taken November 29, 2020. Picture taken November 29, 2020. REUTERS/Dado Ruvic

 

Britain has become the first country in the West to approve a COVID-19 vaccine for public use. The UK Department of Health and Social Care confirmed in a statement to British news agencies that the vaccine developed jointly by American drugmaker Pfizer and Germany's BioNTech would be distributed starting next week. Pfizer was the first of three major Western pharmaceutical companies to apply in both the US and Europe for emergency use authorization.

英国成为首个批准新冠疫苗供民众使用的的西方国家。英国卫生和社会保健部在一份发给英国媒体的声明中证实,美国制药商辉瑞和德国生物新技术公司联合研制的新冠疫苗将从下周起开始发放。辉瑞是三家大型西方制药公司中首个在美国和欧洲同时申请紧急使用授权的公司。

 

"The Government has today accepted the recommendation from the independent Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) to approve Pfizer/BioNTech's Covid-19 vaccine for use," a Department of Health and Social Care spokesman told the Press Association of Britain. The spokesman said the emergency use authorization followed "months of rigorous clinical trials and a thorough analysis of the data by experts at the MHRA who have concluded that the vaccine has met its strict standards of safety, quality and effectiveness."

英国卫生和社会保健部的发言人对英国记者协会表示:“政府今天接受了独立机构英国药品与保健品管理局的建议,决定批准辉瑞和生物新技术公司研制的新冠疫苗投入使用。”发言人表示,在经过了“数月严格缜密的临床测试以及药品与保健品管理局专家对数据的全面分析,最后专家得出结论认为该疫苗符合安全、质量和有效性的严格标准”后,才发放了紧急使用授权。

 

In line with planning in the US, British front-line healthcare workers, care home residents, the very elderly and people with underlying conditions that make them particularly vulnerable to COVID-19 complications are expected to get the first doses of the vaccine. Pfizer's vaccine, like the Oxford and Moderna formulas, requires two doses about a month apart.

同美国的计划一样,英国一线的医护人员、养老院居民、高龄老人和特别容易发生新冠肺炎并发症的基础病患者将优先接种新冠疫苗。辉瑞疫苗和牛津、莫德纳的疫苗一样,都需要接种两剂,间隔时间一个月。

 

UK Health Secretary Matt Hancock called it "fantastic news" that Britain's regulator had deemed the first vaccine safe, and vowed that distribution would begin from Monday. He told the BBC Breakfast show that vaccinations would "start with the most elderly and with people in care homes."

英国卫生部部长马特·汉考克表示,英国监管部门对首批疫苗安全性的认可是一个“特大喜讯”,并宣称疫苗将从下周一开始发放。他告诉BBC节目《早餐秀》说,疫苗接种将“从最年迈的老人和养老院居民开始”。

 

Prime Minister Boris Johnson also hailed the news, confirming in a tweet plans to start rolling out doses from next week.

英国首相鲍里斯·约翰逊也对这一消息表示欢迎,并在发表的推文中证实下周起将开始疫苗接种。

 

英国成为首个批准新冠疫苗的西方国家 下周开始接种 Screenshot from CBS website

 

"It's the protection of vaccines that will ultimately allow us to reclaim our lives and get the economy moving again," Johnson said.

约翰逊表示:“疫苗的保护最终将让我们找回过去的生活,让经济重新运转起来。”

 

Hancock, Britain's top public health official, noted the logistical complexities of distributing the Pfizer vaccine, which needs to be stored at around -94 degrees Fahrenheit, but said Britain would get its first 800,000 doses delivered next week. The UK has a total of 40 million doses of the Pfizer vaccine on order, enough to fully treat 20 million people.

卫生部部长汉考克指出了发放辉瑞疫苗在物流传输上的复杂性,该疫苗需要在零下94华氏度(零下70摄氏度)的温度条件下储存,但他表示下周第一批疫苗共80万剂将运送到英国。英国共下单了4000万剂辉瑞疫苗,足以让2000万人接种。

 

英国成为首个批准新冠疫苗的西方国家 下周开始接种 A dose of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccination of BioNTech and Pfizer is pictured in this undated handout photo, as Britain became the first western country to approve a COVID-19 vaccine, in Mainz, Germany. BioNTech SE 2020, all rights reserved/Handout via REUTERS

 

Two other vaccines, one developed by US-based Moderna, which also requires sub-zero storage, and one made by British pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca in conjunction with Oxford University, have also applied for emergency use authorization in the US and Europe.

另外还有两种疫苗也申请了美国和欧洲的紧急使用授权。一种是美国莫德纳公司研制的,同样需要零下温度的储存条件,还有一种是英国制药公司阿斯利康与牛津大学联合研制的。

 

Both Pfizer and Moderna have said that data from large-scale human trials, involving tens of thousands of people, showed their vaccines to be about 95% effective at preventing COVID-19 infection. AstraZeneca/Oxford found their vaccine, which works in a different way, was up to 90% effective with a certain dosing regimen. The Oxford-developed vaccine is much cheaper to produce, and to distribute as it only requires storage at refrigerator temperatures.

辉瑞和莫德纳都表示,涵盖了数万人的大规模人体试验的数据显示,他们的疫苗防止感染新冠肺炎的有效性可达约95%。阿斯利康和牛津大学发现,在特定的接种方案下,他们这种疗法不同的疫苗有效性可达90%。牛津疫苗的生产和发放成本要低得多,因为该疫苗只需要在冰箱的温度条件下储存。

 

Pfizer chief executive Albert Bourla called the UK move "a historic moment in the fight against COVID-19."

辉瑞公司的首席执行官阿尔伯特·布尔拉将英国此举称作“抗击新冠疫情的历史性时刻”。

 

None of the human trials on any of the three leading Western-made vaccines have found significant adverse affects. Some side effects commonly associated with long-used vaccines, including soreness around the point of injection, fatigue and headaches have been seen in the trial data.

这三种领先的西方研制疫苗在人体试验中均没有出现过严重的副作用。长期使用的疫苗接种时常见的一些副作用,包括注射处酸痛、疲倦、头疼,也在试验数据中出现过。

 

英国成为首个批准新冠疫苗的西方国家 下周开始接种 A dose of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccination of BioNTech and Pfizer is pictured in this undated handout photo, as Britain became the first western country to approve a COVID-19 vaccine, in Mainz, Germany. BioNTech SE 2020, all rights reserved/Handout via REUTERS

 

Logistical issues aside, epidemiologists and public health officials worldwide have warned that another major hurdle to putting the coronavirus pandemic behind humanity could be mistrust of the vaccines that become available.

除了物流问题,世界各地的流行病学家和公共卫生官员还警告说,让人类摆脱新冠疫情的另一个主要障碍可能是民众对现有疫苗的不信任。

 

A CBS News poll carried out in early September found rising skepticism about the coronavirus vaccines in development, with most voters saying that if a vaccine were made available this year, their first thought would be that it was rushed through without enough testing.

美国哥伦比亚广播公司9月初开展的一项民意调查发现,越来越多民众对当前正在研发的新冠疫苗持怀疑态度,多数投票者表示,如果今年疫苗就可以上市,他们首先想到的是该疫苗没有经过足够的测试就仓促完成。

 

Just 21% of voters nationwide said in the survey that they would get a vaccine as soon as possible if it were available at no cost, which was down from 32% in a survey conducted in late July. Most said they would consider it, but wait to see what happens to others before getting one themselves.

全美只有21%的投票者在调查中表示,如果可以免费接种疫苗的话他们会尽快接种,相比7月末的调查结果(32%)下降了。多数人表示会考虑接种疫苗,不过要等一等看看别人接种疫苗后的反应,然后自己才去接种。

 

This pandemic has seen pharmaceutical companies and research institutes work with governments and independent regulatory agencies to compress the usually-years-long process of developing and approving vaccines into a much shorter time frame.

疫情期间,制药公司、研究机构和政府、独立监管部门协同合作,压缩了疫苗研发和审批的流程,原本通常需要数年的时间如今得以大大缩短。

 

The pace has been completely unprecedented, but the entities involved, along with outside experts in infectious disease and vaccinology, have insisted throughout that the process is being compressed safely, largely by overlapping steps that normally come sequentially, rather than by eliminating any steps in the trial and certification process.

这一速度完全是史无前例的,但是有关单位以及外界的传染病和疫苗学专家始终都坚称,这些流程是在安全前提下被压缩的,主要是通过将正常情况下按顺序进行的步骤同时进行,而不是略去了测试和认证流程中的任何步骤。

overlap[ˌoʊvərˈlæp]: v. 在时间上部分地重叠,同时发生

 

Hancock, the British government's health chief, told UK broadcaster Piers Morgan on Wednesday that, if they could get it approved even though they weren't in a high-risk group, he would happily get vaccinated live on television next week with Morgan to show his trust in the vaccine.

英国卫生部部长汉考克周三(12月2日)告诉英国主持人皮尔斯·摩根说,尽管他们不属于高风险群体,但如果可以获得批准,他很愿意下周和摩根一起在电视上直播接种疫苗,以展示他对疫苗的信任。

 

英文来源:哥伦比亚广播公司

翻译&编辑:丹妮

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