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关于饮食控糖的常见问题和误区,你想知道的都在这里

近年来,“控糖”成了一种流行,不少爱美人士认为“戒糖=延缓衰老”。然而“戒糖”并非易事,因为添加糖潜伏在各种令人意想不到的食品中。很多“健康食品”实际都含有大量糖分,食品公司用麦芽糖浆、龙舌兰糖浆甚至果汁这些听起来更健康的名字给添加糖作伪装。

《纽约时报》的一篇文章解答了关于“控糖”的常见问题和误区,比如,为什么“添加糖”比“天然糖”更不利于健康。如果你是“控糖小白”,一定要仔细阅读哦~

关于饮食控糖的常见问题和误区,你想知道的都在这里 [Photo/Pexels]


I have never understood why “added sugar” is more unfriendly to health than “natural sugar,” which can be found in abundance in so many fruits, starting with morning natural orange juice. Can you explain?
问:我一直不明白,为什么“添加糖”比“天然糖”更不利于健康。很多水果中都含有“天然糖”,从早上的天然橙汁开始。能解释一下吗?


The natural sugar in whole fruit (fructose) is accompanied by fiber and nutrients and makes a slow journey through your body. But when sugar is added to beverages or packaged foods, it’s more quickly absorbed and burdens the liver. Here are three good reasons to choose whole fruits versus foods with added sugar or fruit juice.
答:水果中的天然糖分(果糖)是由纤维和营养物质组成的,它会在你的体内缓慢代谢。但是,当糖被添加到饮料或包装食品中,它的吸收会更快,会加重肝脏负担。应当选择吃完整的水果,而不是添加糖食品或果汁,下面是三个理由。


Fiber: Whole fruits contain fiber, which slows the absorption of fructose. Sugars enter the bloodstream more slowly, so the liver has more time to metabolize them.
纤维:完整的水果都含有纤维,可以减缓果糖吸收。糖进入血液的速度会更慢,所以肝脏会有更多时间来代谢它们。


Satiety: Processed food is digested quickly as soon as it enters our intestines. Fiber-rich foods like whole fruits break down slowly and travel farther through the digestive track, which triggers the release of satiety hormones that make us feel full.
饱腹:加工食品一旦进入肠道就会被迅速消化。而全果这类富含纤维的食物则会慢慢分解,在消化系统中停留更长时间,从而触发饱腹激素的释放,让我们感觉很饱。


Gut Health: The slow journey of the fiber, fructose and nutrients in whole fruit essentially allows the body to feed the healthy bacteria in our intestine, supporting the health of our microbiome.
肠道健康:完整的水果中的纤维、果糖和营养物质在消化道中停留较长,方便身体培养肠道中的健康细菌,有利于体内菌群的健康。

 

关于饮食控糖的常见问题和误区,你想知道的都在这里 [Photo/pexels]


Why aren’t bananas and grapes recommended for people cutting sugar?
问:为什么不推荐“控糖”人士吃香蕉和葡萄?


While most fruits make a slow journey through the digestive tract, bananas and grapes are particularly high in fructose given the amount of fiber they contain, so they give us a faster sugar spike. Dr. Robert Lustig of the University of California, San Francisco, calls grapes “little bags of sugar.” Enjoy bananas and grapes sparingly and opt for a variety of fruits.
答:虽然大多数水果被消化的时间较长,但香蕉和葡萄的果糖含量极高,考虑到它们的纤维含量,它们会让血糖飙升得更快。加州大学旧金山分校的罗伯特·勒斯蒂格博士说,葡萄堪比“小袋糖”。建议少食香蕉和葡萄,多吃各种各样的水果。


Can I eat dried fruit on a low-sugar diet?
问:我可以吃低糖的干果吗?


Dried fruit is packed with nutrients, but the drying process removes the water and concentrates a lot of fruit sugar in a very small bite. The risk is that it takes more dried fruit to fill you up than whole fruits. Raisins and dates are about 60 to 65 percent sugar, dried figs and apricots are about 50 percent sugar, and prunes are about 38 percent sugar. The good news is that dried fruit still has the fiber, and it can be a great snack as long as you are aware of how much you are eating.
答:干果富含营养物质,但在干燥过程中,水分会流失,这样很小的一口干果里就浓缩了大量的果糖。问题在于,要想填饱肚子,就得吃下比全果更多的干果。葡萄干和枣干含有60%到65%的糖,无花果干和杏干含有50%的糖,梅干含有38%的糖。好消息是,干果内仍然含有纤维,只要控制食量,它也是一种很好的零食。


Another way to weigh the pros and cons of dried fruit is to look at glycemic load, a measure of how fast your body converts a serving of food into sugar. Ideally you should eat foods with a glycemic load of 10 or less. Anything above 20 is considered very high. Prunes have a glycemic load of 10, whereas raisins have a glycemic load of 28. Compare that to whole fruits. Strawberries, apricots, grapefruit, lemon, limes, cantaloupe, nectarines, oranges, pears, blueberries, peaches, plums, apples and pineapple have glycemic loads of 6 or less.
衡量干果利弊的另一种方法是看血糖负荷指数,它是用来衡量身体将食物转化为糖的速度。理想情况下,食物的血糖负荷指数应该在10或10以下,高于20则是过高的。梅干的血糖负荷指数是10,而葡萄干的血糖负荷指数是28。以完整水果作对比,草莓、杏子、葡萄柚、柠檬、酸橙、哈密瓜、油桃、橙子、梨、蓝莓、桃子、李子、苹果和菠萝的血糖负荷指数不超过6。

 

关于饮食控糖的常见问题和误区,你想知道的都在这里 [Photo/Pexels]


I use milk in my coffee. Is that added sugar?
问:我会在咖啡里加牛奶。这是添加糖吗?


A quarter-cup of milk contains about 3 grams of a natural sugar called lactose. The sugar in milk is not considered an “added sugar,” and it doesn’t overwhelm the liver the way added sugar does. Adding milk or cream to your coffee and enjoying the naturally sweet taste of milk is a great way to kick the added sugar habit in the morning.
答:四分之一杯牛奶含有约3克被称为乳糖的天然糖。牛奶中的糖不算是“添加糖”,它也不像添加糖那样加重肝脏负担。在咖啡中加入牛奶或奶油,享受牛奶天然的甜味,这是从早上开始戒掉添加糖习惯的好方法。


Drinkers of soy and nut milks need to check the label. Many of those products have added sugar. If you love a few teaspoons of sugar in your morning coffee, try adding more milk and cut the sugar in half to start.
喝豆奶和坚果奶时需要检查食品标签。这类产品中有许多添加了糖。如果你喜欢在早上的咖啡里加几茶匙糖,试着加更多牛奶,然后把糖减半。

 

关于饮食控糖的常见问题和误区,你想知道的都在这里 [Photo/Pexels]


Can a few more details be provided about a no-sugar, no-grain breakfast? Doesn’t bacon have sugar? What if I don’t want eggs all the time?
问:可以提供关于无糖、无谷物早餐的更多细节吗?培根里含糖吗?如果我不想早饭总吃鸡蛋怎么办?


With so much added sugar lurking in granola, cereals, pastries, breads and yogurts, you might as well just call it dessert. But readers have had a tough time figuring out alternatives to popular grain-based breakfast foods. Here are some ideas.
答:即食麦片、谷物、糕点、面包和酸奶中都含有大量添加糖,不妨把它们称为甜点。常见的早餐食品以谷物为主,读者们很难找到其他替代品。以下是一些想法。


High-protein breakfast: Eggs are a high-protein option, and while they are also high in cholesterol, many people can probably eat them in moderation without worrying about heart risks. But many people don’t want to eat eggs every day. Bacon is also high in protein but, like other processed meats, also shouldn’t be consumed daily. (Most plain bacon does not have added sugar, though if it’s maple-cured or brown-sugar-cured, it probably does.) Consider eating smoked salmon, tuna or chicken salad for breakfast. Make a vegan breakfast bowl of sweet potatoes, beans and avocado.
高蛋白早餐:鸡蛋是提供高蛋白的选择,虽然它们也含有高胆固醇,但许多人也许可以适量食用,无需担心心脏病的风险。不过很多人不想每天都吃鸡蛋。培根也富含蛋白质,但和它其他加工肉类一样,不应每天食用。(大多数普通培根是不加糖的,不过如果是枫香熏或红糖熏的,可能会加糖。)可以考虑早餐吃烟熏三文鱼、金枪鱼或鸡肉沙拉。或者用红薯、豆子和鳄梨做一份素食早餐。


Sweet alternatives: Try plain, unsweetened yogurt with berries and nuts or sliced apples with sugar-free peanut butter. Or just eat and savor a whole orange or make a fruit salad.
甜食替代品:尝试原味无糖酸奶,加入浆果和坚果,或者苹果片和无糖花生酱。要不就吃一个完整的橘子,或者做一份水果沙拉。


Greens and vegetables: Try a breakfast salad with avocado and hard-boiled eggs. Use a big kale leaf to make a breakfast burrito or egg salad wrap. Experiment with cauliflower to make hash browns. Bake a sweet potato and add salsa, yogurt or nuts.
绿色蔬菜:试试用鳄梨和水煮蛋做早餐沙拉。用一片大甘蓝叶做早餐卷或鸡蛋沙拉卷。做一个花椰菜版的土豆丝饼。烤一个红薯,加入辣番茄酱、酸奶或坚果。


If I can’t have orange juice, what am I supposed to drink in the morning?
问:如果不能喝橙汁,早上应该喝什么?


Even though orange juice is a natural food, the juicing process eliminates much of the fiber and concentrates the sugar, making it a poor choice. Make juice a once-a-week treat. Instead, try ice water with an orange wedge.
答:尽管橙汁是一种天然食品,但榨汁过程会消除很多纤维,并浓缩糖分,因此这不是一个好的选择。每周喝一次果汁即可。你可以尝试橙子块加冰水来代替。

 

来源:英语世界

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