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圣诞树,圣诞袜,还有那圣诞卡,你知道这些习俗怎么来的吗

圣诞节又到了,又是一个天上飞着驯鹿、家里摆着圣诞树、树下还有礼物的日子。

不过,小伙伴们虽然对西方庆祝圣诞的方式已经不再陌生,但你知道这些习俗都是如何起源的吗?英国《每日电讯报》总结了10种庆祝圣诞节的习俗以及它们的来历。我们为大家做了一个梳理,小伙伴们不妨一边玩耍,一边涨涨知识。

圣诞树,圣诞袜,还有那圣诞卡,你知道这些习俗怎么来的吗 [Photo/Pexels]


圣诞卡片
Christmas Card

Having helped set up the Public Records Office (now the Post Office), Sir Henry Cole and artist John Horsley created the first Christmas card in 1843 as a way of encouraging people to use its services.
在协助成立了公共档案室(后发展成现代邮局)之后,亨利·科尔爵士和艺术家约翰·霍斯利在1843年一起制作了世界上第一张圣诞卡片,以此来鼓励人们使用公共档案室的服务。

Cards cost a shilling (equivalent to almost £5.75 now) and stamps a penny (about 40p at modern prices). Advances in printing brought prices down, making cards hugely popular by the 1860s. By 1900 the custom of sending Christmas cards had spread throughout Europe.
当时一张圣诞卡值一先令(大致相当于现在的5.75镑),一张邮票一便士(大概相当于今天的40便士)。印刷术的进步使得卡片和邮票更加便宜,也让圣诞卡片在19世纪60年代变得极为流行。到1900年时,赠送圣诞卡片的习俗已经传遍欧洲。

 

圣诞树,圣诞袜,还有那圣诞卡,你知道这些习俗怎么来的吗 [Photo/Pexels]


圣诞树
The Christmas Tree

While Christmas trees have been around for a millennium in northern Europe, the first one did not appear in the UK until the 1830s. When Prince Albert put up a Christmas tree at Windsor Castle in 1841, he started what became an evergreen trend.
尽管圣诞树已经在北欧流行了近千年,但英国直到19世纪30年代才有了第一棵真正意义上的圣诞树。1841年,当阿尔伯特亲王在温莎城堡上第一次竖起圣诞树的时候,他开启了这一长青不衰的传统。


百果馅饼
Mince Pies

Early mince pies were made of meat, fruit and spice and inspired by Middle Eastern cuisine brought back by the Crusaders.
受十字军东征带回的中东饮食启发,早期的百果馅饼包含了肉馅、水果和香料。

They commonly had 13 ingredients representing Christ and the Apostles, and were formed in a large oval shape to represent the manger. Meat had disappeared from the recipe by Victorian times, although beef suet is often still included.
通常来说,百果馅饼包含13种原料,分别代表着耶稣和十二使徒。而馅饼的椭圆形状则代表着耶稣降生的马槽。自维多利亚时期起,配料就不再包含肉馅了,但牛油仍然是常用原料。

 

圣诞树,圣诞袜,还有那圣诞卡,你知道这些习俗怎么来的吗 [Photo/Pexels]


圣诞长袜
Stockings

Leaving stockings out at Christmas goes back to the legend of St Nicholas. Known as the gift giver, on one occasion he sent bags of gold down a chimney at the home of a poor man who had no dowry for his unmarried daughters. The gold fell into stockings left hanging to dry. St Nicholas was later referred to by the Dutch as Sinterklaas and eventually, by English-speakers, as Santa Claus.
在圣诞节摆放圣诞长袜的传统,要追溯到圣·尼古拉斯的事迹。他是一个乐善好施的人。曾经有个穷人付不起女儿的嫁妆,他就顺着那家人的烟囱,往他家里扔了几包黄金。黄金正好掉进了挂在壁炉烘干的袜子里。圣·尼古拉斯后来被荷兰人称作“Sinterklaas”,最终被英语国家的人称作“圣诞老人”。


冬青与常青藤
Holly and ivy

Synonymous with Christmas and the subject of a traditional British folk carol, both holly and ivy were originally used in pre-Christian times to celebrate the winter solstice. As they provide a rare splash of colour in the darkest month of the year, their popularity has endured.
这两种植物与圣诞节简直就是同义词,它们也是一首英国传统民谣的主题。早在基督教之前,冬青和常青藤就被用来庆祝冬至了。它们在一年中最灰暗的月份里难得地为大地增添了一抹颜色,因此它们也就一直备受欢迎。


圣诞爆竹
Christmas crackers

London sweet-maker Tom Smith invented Christmas crackers in the late 1840s, inspired by traditional, paper-wrapped French bonbons. Even though he included mottos or riddles inside each, it was not until he found a way to make them “crack” when pulled apart that sales took off. His sons Tom, Walter and Henry later added hats and novelty gifts.
伦敦的糖果师汤姆·史密斯受法国传统纸卷的小糖果启发,在19世纪40年代末发明了圣诞爆竹。尽管他在每个爆竹里都放了格言和谜语,但销量一直不是很好。直到他找到了一种方法,让爆竹被拉开的时候能“爆”,销售量才突飞猛进。他的儿子汤姆、沃尔特和亨利后来又给爆竹加进小帽子和新奇的礼物。


火鸡
Turkey

Turkeys originated in Mexico and were first brought to Britain in 1526 by William Strickland. Henry VIII enjoyed turkey and although the bird became fashionable in high society in the late 19th century it was Edward VII who made it de rigueur at Christmas for the middle classes.
吃火鸡的习俗起源于墨西哥,最初由威廉·斯特瑞兰德在1526年引入英国。亨利八世很喜欢吃火鸡。尽管这道菜在19世纪晚期已经成为上流社会的最爱,但最终是爱德华七世把吃火鸡变成中产阶层的节日必备活动。

Even by 1930, however, it took a week’s wages to buy one and turkey remained a luxury until the 1950s.
但即使到了1930年,买一只火鸡也得花上一周的薪水,因此直到20世纪50年代为止,吃火鸡一直是一种奢侈的享受。

 

圣诞树,圣诞袜,还有那圣诞卡,你知道这些习俗怎么来的吗 [Photo/Pexels]


圣诞布丁
Christmas Pudding

Also known as plum or figgy pudding, this Christmas staple possibly has its roots as far back as the Middle Ages in a wheat-based pottage known as frumenty. By the mid 17th century, it was thicker and had developed into a dessert with the addition of eggs, dried fruit and alcohol.
圣诞布丁也叫作梅子布丁或无花果布丁。这款圣诞的主菜可能要追溯到中世纪的一种叫做牛奶麦粥的食物,它主要以小麦为原料。到了17世纪中叶,它渐渐变厚,并加入了鸡蛋、干果和酒精而变成了一种甜点。

In Victorian times plum pudding was a Christmas favourite. It is traditionally made a week before Advent on what is known as “stir-up Sunday”.
在维多利亚时代,梅子布丁是基督徒们最喜欢的食物之一。传统上,梅子布丁要在基督降临节的前一周制作,那一天被称作“唤醒星期日”。

 

圣诞树,圣诞袜,还有那圣诞卡,你知道这些习俗怎么来的吗 [Photo/Pexels]


槲寄生
Mistletoe

Hanging mistletoe in the home is an ancient pagan practice adopted by early Christians. The word itself is Anglo-Saxon and the tradition of kissing under the mistletoe originated in England. Each kiss required a berry to be plucked until none remained.
在屋里挂一束槲寄生是早期基督徒从古代异教习俗中吸纳的一种做法。这个词本身是盎克鲁-撒克逊语,在槲寄生下接吻这一传统则起源于英格兰。每一次亲吻都要摘除一颗槲寄生的浆果,直到摘完为止。


圣诞颂歌
Christmas Carols

Carols were songs and dances of praise and joy in pagan times and the practice of carol singing carried over into the Christian era. Carols have been written through the centuries but the most familiar date from Victorian times. Today, popular songs such as Bing Crosby’s White Christmas and Slade’s Merry Xmas Everybody are just as much a part of Christmas as carols.
颂歌是异教时期用来表达赞美和愉悦的歌舞形式,唱颂歌这一习惯后来被带入到基督教时代。几个世纪以来都有圣诞颂歌的作品不断被创作出来,但最有名的要数维多利亚时期的那些。今天,流行的圣诞歌曲包括宾·克罗斯比演唱的“白色圣诞节”,以及斯莱德的“大家圣诞快乐”,这些颂歌都是圣诞的一部分。

怎么样?又涨了不少新知识吧?和小伙伴玩耍的时候,别忘了也给他们科普一下哦。祝大家圣诞快乐!

 

编辑:祝兴媛
实习编辑:洪泽华

圣诞树,圣诞袜,还有那圣诞卡,你知道这些习俗怎么来的吗
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